Klaus Kolb installed a Water Furnace Geothermal Heat Pump (a two ton Premier Model PO22TL101NADSSA) with a 1/2 HP Blower and a 1/2 HP Loop Pump in his South Carolina 40' American Ingenuity Dome Home. In retrospect he realizes the 40' dome needed only a 1.5 ton unit.
Klaus stated, "I buried two loops of 500' each,  1/2" special plastic pipe by Water Furnace in a 2' wide ditch 6' deep in my pasture. At that depth and in our latitude, there is a constant temperature of 59 degree F (free buried sun energy). My heat pump uses this base temperature to either heat my home dome in winter to 70 degrees or cool in summer to 75 degrees.  Thus my delta T (temperature differential) is very small, resulting in minimal energy consumption."




These photos show Klaus Kolb installing the plastic pipe.


To research GeoThermal

 Heating and Cooling Systems

visit Water Furnace's web site

Water Furnace:  click on Water Furnace.  The following info came directly from their web site.  What's a "WaterFurnace"?  WaterFurnace is a pioneer and industry leader in the development and manufacture of geothermal heating and cooling systems. We don't just make them. We "practice what we preach"—by heating and cooling our Fort Wayne, Indiana, headquarters with our own WaterFurnace geothermal units. After all, we could hardly expect you to believe this technology is "Smarter from the Ground Up" if we weren't convinced of it ourselves.

Our entire Fort Wayne complex serves as a working model for large-scale industrial and commercial buildings across the country. It uses what's called a "closed loop" system spread over the bottom of a pond as its heating and cooling source. Sound remarkable? It is. Yet the science behind it is sound. We'll explain it to you.


Q: Can photovoltaics be used with your dome?
Yes. The magazine, Home Power has dedicated more than 100 issues to home-scale renewable energy and sustainable living solutions. That means they have had comprehensive coverage of solar, wind, and microhydro electricity, home energy efficiency, solar hot water systems, space heating and cooling, green building materials and home design, efficient transportation, and much, much more. Whether you're a do-it-yourselfer or not, off-grid or on-grid, Home Power can help you make informed decisions about your home energy use. They provide extensive product information, homeowner testimonials, buyer advice, and "how-to" instructions.


The following came from an article that ran in the Home Power magazine.

What do you need when you are going to live in a high desert (7,500 ft. elev.) 40 miles from the nearest town with the winters reaching down 20 degrees below zero?  That is where Jim & Mary Collar planned to build their solar retirement home.  To extend electric power to their home site would cost $22,000 so the Collars decided to produce their power using photovoltaic solar cells with a back up generator.  Their primary source of heat would be their fireplace.  In 1995 after researching many alternative-building methods, they found their home, an American Ingenuity 45' Dome House and 30' garage.  Our dome kits were selected for their strength, energy efficiency and affordability.  They selected subcontractors for the construction of their two domes with Mary being the general contractor. Jim was commuting 40 miles to his job but on evenings and weekends they could work together.  They were asked by the state of Utah to participate in “Utahs’1998 Tour of Innovative Homes” which is in conjunction with the American solar Energy Society’s National Tour of solar Homes.    The Collars can be reached at their email address [email protected]


The four photos below are a reprint of that Home Power article.

Click on the photo or page to enlarge it.












                                                            An American Ingenuity Dome

                                            built in Vermont utilizing photovoltaics.

                                                Click on the photo to enlarge it.


National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) US Department of Energy. Research and development, and information source on photovoltaics. Website includes a virtual library of online reference materials.  The Center brings people together through conferences and forums to share information and concerns. And the Center provides and develops various forms of information for people with a wide range of needs.   Click on


The Florida Solar Energy Center seeks to provide the general public and professionals with accurate and current information about alternative energy use and production (photovoltaic).  Click on

PV Power  This is a site for the coordination and dissemination of information of global photovoltaic (PV) technologies, applications, history, and resources. Photovoltaics is a semiconductor technology that silently converts light energy into direct-current (dc) electricity, with no moving parts, burning no fuel, and creating no pollution. Click on

Photovoltaic  is a site that lists Manufacturers of Photovoltaics.  Click on

Home Power Magazine:  If you are considering an alternative power system in your dome the magazine Home Power offers many solutions. They can be reached at their email address [email protected] or at their web site  



Aeromax Corporation: click on  The following information came from Aeromax Corporation's web site.  "My company manufactures wind turbines which are used as a residential alternative energy source and supplement. I would like to speak with you about the use of a Lakota Wind Turbine in your projects.  Many alternative homes use photovoltaics as a power supplement, but it could cost almost $20,000 in solar panels to equal the power of one Lakota.  Contact Mitch Mitchem, Distribution Manager,  Aeromax Corporation   office: 928-775-0085  fax: 928-775-0803."


Survival Center:  click on  They have most everything: from alfalfa seeds and band aids to solar powered items, radiation meters to underground shelters.  Their site states, "Consider us your personal preparedness consultants." 



To Research Radiant Floor Systems

Radiant Floor Company:  click on   The following info came directly from their site.  If you're a do-it-yourselfer looking for help designing a radiant heating system and it seems like nobody in the industry is willing to help you...then you've found the right company. If you've received quotes of 10, 20, and even $30,000(!) for a radiant heating system and are still recovering from the shock....relief is right here.  Radiant floor heating is a proven technology. Our manifolds, pumps, and controllers are of the finest quality and will give you years of trouble free service.


U.S. Dept of Energy, Renewable Energy 

click on  The following came directly from their web site.


Types of Radiant Floor Heating

There are three types of radiant floor heat: radiant air floors (air is the heat carrying medium); electric radiant floors; and hot water (hydronic) radiant floors. All three types can be further subdivided by the type of installation: those that make use of the large thermal mass of a concrete slab floor or lightweight concrete over a wooden subfloor (these are called "wet" installations); and those in which the installer "sandwiches" the radiant floor tubing between two layers of plywood or attaches the tubing under the finished or subfloor (dry installations).


Because air cannot hold large amounts of heat, radiant air floors are not cost-effective in residential applications, and are seldom installed.


Electric radiant floors are usually only cost-effective if your electric utility company offers time-of-use rates. Time-of-use rates allow you to "charge" the concrete floor with heat during off-peak hours (approximately 9 p.m. to 6 am). If the floor's thermal mass is large enough, the heat stored in it will keep the house comfortable for eight to ten hours, without any further electrical input. This saves a considerable number of energy dollars compared to heating at peak electric rates during the day.


Hydronic (liquid) systems are the most popular and cost-effective systems for heating-dominated climates. They have been in extensive use in Europe for decades. Hydronic radiant floor systems pump heated water from a boiler through tubing laid in a pattern underneath the floor. The temperature in each room is controlled by regulating the flow of hot water through each tubing loop. This is done by a system of zoning valves or pumps and thermostats.


Concrete  provides an extensive listing of questions and answers relating to radiant floor heating.


Wirsbo The following came directly from their web site.

At Uponor Wirsbo we are committed to providing exceptional Life, Safety and Comfort Systems. Our quality Radiant Systems can deliver comfort and efficiency beyond compare. AQUAPEX® is a clean, quiet and healthy plumbing system for your home and AQUASAFE® combines our plumbing system with fire sprinklers giving you fire protection and peace of mind.

Free Advice on Radiant Floor Heating Free advice on buying and repairing radiant floor heating from leading authority and Home and Garden TV personality, Don Vandervort.





Creative Science: click on  The following info came from their site, "The reason we started this website was to go public with our new discoveries such as the Fuelless Engine, the SP500 Generator and the Fuelless Heater, as well as to raise money for research and development and to fuel future ideas in the areas of alternative energy.  It has been our objective for the last 10 yrs to slowly and carefully introduce these devices into the world by allowing people like yourself to build them!"  


 Research Solar Electric Systems


Global Resource Options:  click on  Produce natural, clean electricity from the sun with these efficient, economical solar electric systems. Choose between systems with or without batteries for your home. Global also offers systems for cabins and homes not connected to the power line.



Lorentz:  Click on  The following information came directly from their web site.  We manufacture solar water pumps. Today´s featured product are our solar pool filtration and collector pumps.  No more power bills for your customer.  Power cuts? No Problem the pool is clean 5 years return of investment from saved power bills. Solar modules are warranted for 20 years and more.




Sharp:  click on  then click on Products, Modules

The following was taken directly from their web site:  Sharp is the #1 manufacturer of solar cells worldwide with nearly as much generating capacity as the next three largest manufacturers combined. Our residential solar systems give families the ability to generate their own electricity from the inexhaustible energy of the sun - with no harmful emissions. They're cost-effective, quiet, attractive, safe, and reliable, with only minimal maintenance required over their long operational life. They're the right choice for your home and the right choice for the environment. It's no wonder why so many homeowners are making the move to Sharp Solar.

Your Sharp solar system is customized specifically for your needs. We manufacture a complete line of solar modules in a range of power output levels, as well as unique triangular modules that lend a beautiful, custom look to angled rooflines. Your independent Sharp Certified Installer will help you determine the ideal system based on your power needs, and design a rooftop configuration that provides clear, unobstructed access to the sun while ensuring a clean, stylish appearance.

Spectrolab:  click on spectrolab.  The following came directly from their web site:  Welcome to Spectrolab, the world's leading manufacturer of space solar cells and panels. Spectrolab's product portfolio includes terrestrial concentrator solar cells and modules, searchlight systems (Nightsun® series), solar simulators and opto-electronic products.


Solar Hot Water Panels


Q: How are Solar Hot Water Panels installed in the dome shell?

A: Solar Hot Water panels can be designed to set on top of the entryways or link. Anchors are buried into the entryway concrete on site. Grooves are cut in the E.P.S. insulation to lay the pipes in and the water pipes are inserted through the entryway E.P.S. before the entryway is concreted.  Some of our clients have solar hot water panels mounted on their dome link.  The panel sits on the link and lies against the side of the dome.  To hide the ends of the solar panel, fill in the ends with E.P.S. and stucco over the E.P.S. so it matches the dome.   


Click on the photo to enlarge it.




      Look to the right of the                 On top of the entryway to the

        garage door to see a                     left of the front doors is

        solar hot water panel                    a solar hot water heater

        installed on top a link

        and anchored to the




To Research Tankless

Hot Water On Demand Water Heaters

visit Rinnai, Bosch, Takagi web sites


Klaus Kolb installed a Rinnai Continuum tankless (Troughflow) water heater in his American Ingenuity 40' Dome Home.  The specifications are Whole House Unit, Model REU 2424W-US; Min 19000 BTU, Max 180000 BTU; LP Gas.


Rinnai:  Click on  The following info came directly from their web site.

With Rinnai Continuum and Integrity's patented technology, you will have an endless supply of hot water 24 hours a day. Unique to the Rinnai tankless water heaters is the ability to utilize up to three water outlets simultaneously with a constant temperature of hot water. The Rinnai Continuum and Integrity supplies hot water at the rate of up to 8.5 gallons per minute continuously with no time constraints!

Bosch:   Click on The following info came directly from their web site.


Have you ever thought about going tankless? Save energy and space with the help of one of the nation's leading producers of tankless gas water heaters. Our highly efficient Bosch AquaStar tankless water heaters are redefining how homeowners throughout the U.S. heat their water!


How could going tankless benefit you?

In the US and Canada, for more information about Bosch High Efficiency Water Heaters or details about our product line, please visit our partner's website,  or call 1-800-503-5028.


Takagi:  click on


Since there is no tank to fill, there is no end to your supply of hot water. Depending on the model, Takagi Tankless water heaters deliver between 200 gallons and 500 gallons of hot water every hour on demand. Tankless systems guarantee that an endless supply of water is available to residences, commercial spaces or anywhere a constant source of hot water is needed.


At just twenty inches high, and weighing only forty pounds, the T-K Jr. is the most compact unit in the Takagi line. Designed to produce endless hot water and radiant heating for smaller homes, The T-K Jr. uses the same innovative technology as the original Takagi units - only on an even smaller scale.




To Research Energy Efficient

Windows visit Milgard's web site


Milgard:  click on


One of American Ingenuity's clients purchased Milgard's protruded fiberglass double paned windows with low-E.  The following info came directly from their site:

Cut heating and cooling losses with the best glass in the industry: Milgard SunCoat™ Low-E all climate, all-season glass. It's the "clear" glass choice for energy-efficient windows that give you year-round comfort. You'll find it on all Milgard insulated windows. Not only does it make our windows more energy efficient, but it also protects your carpet and furniture from fading. SunCoat Low-E blocks infrared light and reduces ultraviolet light.